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Geopeptides Blog

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  • What is Levothyroxine Sodium?

    On the surface, Levothyroxine Sodium is a name for the drug that’s been developed to treat thyroid issues.  If the thyroid is underactive, a mammal will have limited mental capacity and physical energy.  If untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to an earlier death due to abnormal deterioration of the body.  Levothyroxine Sodium will increase the thyroid hormone and help stave off hypothyroidism, leading to a more normal and healthy life.  Additionally, ongoing research is being done in regards to using Levothyroxine Sodium to treat thyroid cancers and goiters.

    There are a variety of doses commercialized and available on the market.  Any of the commercialized doses are considered safe for use and overdosing doesn’t seem to be a threat as it’s not a consequence of any study. Levothyroxine Sodium actually has been found to have some side benefits as well.  One being that it will actually improve embryo quality and pregnancy outcome.  Obviously this is a stark contrast to most medications on the market, treating a variety of problems.  We’ve been trained to avoid consuming most medications while pregnant but Levothyroxine Sodium is often used with pregnant females.
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  • What is Tamoxifen Citrate?

    Marketed under a number of different names and name brands, Tamoxifen Citrate is commonly used to treat one of the more devastating diseases in mammals, particularly in humans.  Breast cancer, commonly the metastatic kind, is often treated by using doses of Tamoxifen Citrate in patients directly after surgery and/or chemotherapy or radiation therapy.  High risk patients are also frequently prescribed the drug to help prevent the negative effects of estrogen in breast tissue.  This prevention will stop from the rapid changes in breast size that can often lead to breast cancer.

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  • What is Ostarine MK-2866?

    Ostarine MK-2866 is a selective androgen receptor module (SARM) that was created initially to treat and prevent muscle wasting and osteoporosis. It works by biding to the androgen receptor (AR) and displays myo (muscular) and osteo (bone) selective anabolic activity. The stimulation and tying builds muscle by intensifying protein synthesis. Treatment with ostarine MK-2866 is promising for people suffer muscle wasting because of diseases such as AIDS or cancer, surgeries or old age. Not only will it preserve muscle tissue but it can cause an increase as well. Other uses for Ostarine MK-2866 that are being investigated include conditions such as sarcopenia, cachexia as well as testosterone or hormone replacement therapy.


    Ostarine MK-2866 contains (2S)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. It has a molar mass of 389.33 g/mol, PubChem CID 10181786 and a melting point between 70 to 74 °C or 158 to 165°F. Its route of administration is by mouth. While the makers, GTRx Inc. have not publically disclosed the chemical structure, its composition is available in patient databases like the WIPO. It has also been discussed in the primary literature in 2009 by Zhang et al.
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  • What is CJC-1295?

    The synthetic analog of a growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) and of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) known as CJC-1295, goes by DAC:GRF. The latter is an acronym for drug affinity complex: growth hormone-releasing factor. This modified form of GHRH, was created by ConjuChem Biotechnologies, and with attention to half-life, carries improved pharmacokinetics. CJC-1295 is a long acting GHRH, which works by making the anterior pituitary gland secrete more growth hormone. CJC-1295 has the ability to join two biomolecules together with a chemical bond.


    CJC-1295 is specifically a tetrasubstituted peptide analogue of the GHRH with D-Ala, Gin, Ala and Leu replacements at locations 2, 8, 15, and 27, respectively. The clinical research on CJC-1295 started in the mid-2000s. The peptide was originally researched with the end goal of treating visceral fat deposits in AIDS patients suffering with obesity. This worked because it acted to raise HGH, like Ipamorelin, and was presumed that higher levels of exogenous HGH increase lipolysis, or fat loss.   Research showed that for most subjects it was a success, since Gherlin, which acts as a hunger hormone, releases from the gut to work synergistically within the body with GHRH. It additionally acts to suppress somatostatin to clear a path for the GHRH pulse.
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  • What is Follistatin?

    The secreted glycoprotein follistatin (FST) was first found in ovarian follicular fluid and recognized as a follicle stimulating hormone inhibiting substance. The secreted protein regulates the ligands of the TGF-Beta family by halting their access to signaling receptors, while binding to their ligands. Originally, FSH was discovered as activin antagonists who exhibited activities that suppress secretion and expression of the FSH of the pituitary hormone. On top of being a natural agonist, the activity of other TGF-Beta ligands can be inhibited by follistatin, including BMP-2,-4,-6,-7, TGF-Beta-1, GDF-11 and Myostatin. Follistatin is expressed in the ovaries, parts of the endometrium, pituitary among other tissues.

    The primary function of FSH is the bioneutralization and binding of members of the TGF-Beta superfamily, especially zeroing in on the paracrine hormone, activin. FSH was originally called FSH-suppressing protein (FSP), because of its behavior when originally isolated from follicular fluid. At this time it was found to the secretion of FHS from the anterior pituitary secretions.
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  • All You Need to Know About AICA Ribonucleotide

    AICA ribonucleotide, (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) falls in the generation of inosine monophosphate as an intermediate. Also known as AICAR, it has the capability to stimulate adenosine monophosphate (AMP) dependent protein kinase activity, because it is an analog of adenosine monophosphates. This drug got its start being used to preserve the flow of blood to the heart in surgery. It premiered in the 1980s. Now, AICAR has the potential to be used as a diabetes treatment because of how it ups the metabolic activity of tissues by altering the muscles’ physical composition.

    When AICAR is in the form of nucleoside, acadesine, enters the cardiac cells to restrict adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase, which is an analog of adenosine. Throughout conditions of myocardial ischemia only, it boosts the nucleotide re-synthesis increasing adenosine generation rate from adenosine monophosphate. Acadesine is phosphorylated to AICAR in cardiac myocytes, to stimulate AMPK without altering the nucleotide levels. The de novo synthesis passage for adenosine synthesis is open for AICAR to hinder adenosine deaminase, which causes a rise in adenosine and AP levels.
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  • Amyloid Beta Peptide Explained

    The amyloid beta peptide is critically associated with Alzheimer’s disease and indicated by 39 to 43 amino acids long from the membrane protein, which makes up the predominant part of the amyloid plaques that are located in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.  It is believed widely by scientists that the production and deposit of the amyloid beta peptide is responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. The peptides are formed once the amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been sequentially cleaved, which is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose function is undetermined.

    The alternative name for amyloid beta peptide is AB42. Biologically it can be described as 42-Residue amyloid ß-protein fragment. The most common form of amyloid ß is generally discovered in the brains of individuals with Down’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease and is neurotoxic. It has a purity of >95% and a molecular weight of 4514.08. The molecular formula of amyloid ß peptide is C203H311N55O60S with a CAS number of 107761-42-2. Amyloid beta peptide’s PubChem identifier is 57339251 with a sequence of DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA. Its solubility is batch dependent and can be stored for up to 12 months at -20°C, under desiccating conditions.
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  • What Are Lipopeptides?

     Lipopeptides are molecules made up of a lipid that connects to a peptide. These molecules are expressed with bacteria and can self-assemble into varying structures. Through scientific research, lipopeptides have shown the ability to increase the natural productivity level of cells. Because of their ability to interact with cell membranes in this way and revitalize their natural function, as well as renew them to their highest growth potential, lipopeptides are considered one of nature’s most effective anti-agers. Lipopeptides are not water-soluble, making them highly adaptable to the natural makeup of the skin.

    Some lipopeptides are used as antibiotics while other types are Toll-like receptor agonists. Specified lipopeptides possess heavy hemolytic and antifungal actions. Research revealed that their functions are often connected to how they interact with plasma membrane.
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  • Tesamorelin: What and Why?

    Tesamorelin is an injectable hormone that takes the synthetic structure of growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and has the trade name, Egrifta. It is used by those who are taking particular HIV medications to lessen fat in the stomach area, cause by those medications. This is the condition called, lipodystrophy. Tesamorelin is a synthetic peptide made up of all 44 amino acids of GHRH as well an acid group, trans-3 hexenoic. The injection of tesamorelin is much like the hormone that the brain’s hypothalamus gland releases and is only available with a prescription from a doctor.

    How to Use Tesamorelin

    Users of tesamorelin for lipodystrophy should only receive it from a trained nurse or other medical professional. The injections may be administered by this health professional or the user will be trained thoroughly on how to self-administer at home. The drug is injected beneath the skin, normally in the stomach or abdomen. It should never be shot into scar tissue, a bruise or the navel.

    Tesamorelin comes in a powder form and must be mixed with a liquid before use. Doses should only be prepared in a syringe when the user is ready to administer the injection. Once the tesamorelin is mixed with water, it has to be used immediately and cannot be stored for later use. Injections should be given in different places in the stomach each time and never injected twice in a row in the same spot.
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  • Toremifene Citrate Explained

    Toremifene citrate is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which is taken orally. It aids in opposing the movement of estrogen throughout the body. The United States has licensed the drug and it is known by the brand name Fareston. It has been FDA approved to be used in metastatic breast cancer. Its chemical formula is C26H28ClNO and it has a molar mass of 405.959 g/mol. The half life of Toremifene citrate is five days.

    Toremifene expresses mixed agonistic along with antagonistic properties where related to estrogen throughout varying tissues and cells in the human body. It belongs to the triphenylethylene family of compounds that includes the drugs tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate, known respectively on the market as Nolvadex and Clomid, which are also closely related to one another. Toremifene citrate is especially close to Nolvadex in how it works to block estrogen.
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