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  • What is GW 1516?

    GW 1516, also known as GW 501,516 or GSK-516, or Endurobol, is a selective activator of the PPARδ gene which is involved in building and regulating muscles. The research peptide was invented through a collaboration of GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals, originally thought to be a candidate for drug treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. GW 1516 helps burn fat rather than sugar or muscle fibers, and has been shown in a number of research studies to increase endurance and physical fitness. It stimulates glucose uptake for fat burning.  Like with any synthetic hormone it has its positives and negatives.  GW 1516 has been used in many studies of rodents, including mice and rats, as well as humans.  However, at this time, GW 1516 is available for research purposes only.

    GW 1516 Scientific Information


    Scientific Formula: C21H18F3NO3S2

    IUPAC name: {4-[({4-methyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl}methyl)sulfanyl]-2-methylphenoxy}acetic acid


    GW 1516 in the 1990's

    In the 1990's, drug manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) thought that GW 1516 could be a cure for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.  They began phase I and II trials on human subjects that showed positive results.  However, they were also doing studies on rats and in those studies, they found that high doses of GW 1516 caused cancer in many organs and at rapid rates - and so they stopped developing and testing GW 1516 for human use.

    In the rats, all doses of the drug caused rapid development of cancer.  The results were alarming as cancers developed in the liver, thyroid, stomach, bladder, reproductive organs, tongue and skin.  However, there is some criticism of the drug trials as the rodents were given 100x the normal dose for over 100 days straight.  This was nothing like what the drug would be used for in normal real life situations.  Many critics don't believe that the cancer risk is a valid outcome of the trials as it didn't happen in all cases.

    GW 1516 Research in the 2000's

    Further studies on rodents were performed in the 2000's using GW 1516.  These studies on mice showed that the mice who received the drug could run twice the distance of their non-drugged counterparts.  It increased the physical performance of the mice dramatically.  Not only this, but the mice lost weight even when they were fed high fat diets and showed increased muscle mass.
    This peptide shows the same health benefits for mice as eating the right diet and regular exercise would accomplish.  However, it goes a step further in that it begins to take effect almost immediately when given to the mice.  It was also shown to have an effect on lowering bad cholesterol, increasing insulin production, and decreasing markers for cardiovascular disease.  In combination with another drug, AICAR, there were even further increases in endurance.  The results weren't just a small increase, but a 44% increase in performance in the mice.


    When GW 1516 binds to the PPARδ it recruits the coactivator PGC-1a and causes the upregulation of the expression of proteins responsible for expending energy. In rat studies, it was shown that rats treated with GW 1516 had increased fatty acid metabolism within muscle and were protected against obesity and type II diabetes from their diet. In studies with GW 1516 with obese rhesus monkeys, they showed a lower very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and an increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

    GW 1516 Usage

    The promise of a drastic increase in physical performance, as well as increased health with cures for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease make GW 1516 an interesting peptide to research. Despite the possible benefits GW 1516 it is still only available for research purposes.

    The normal dosing for test subjects, unlike what was used in the studies, would be 5mg a day for 2 to 3 months.  For subjects who are experienced with the product the dose could be increased to 10mg a day.

    not approved for human use at this time.

  • IGF 1 – LR3 in a Nutshell

    IGF 1– LR3 is a synthetic hormone that has the same properties of naturally occurring insulin.  The letters are short for Insulin-like Growth Factor – 1 Long Arg3, the Arg3 or 3 being representative of arginine being in the 3rd position of the amino acid sequence.  IGF 1- LR3 was created to increase the activity of the growth hormone as it mimics the structure of insulin.

    IGF 1 – LR3 has 83 amino acids, represented in this manner:  MFPAMPLSSL FVNGPRTLCG AELVDALQFV CGDRGFYFNK PTGYGSSSRR APQTGIVDEC CFRSCDLRRL EMYCAPLKPA KSA.  Amino acids are the foundation of proteins which living things thrive on.  They transport nutrients to muscles which are essential to aiding in repair of damaged tissue.

    There have been many scientific studies of the benefits of IGF 1 – LR3 and it is currently available for research purposes only.

    IGF 1 – LR3 and Muscle Fibers

    As we age we naturally lose muscle fiber and our connective tissue deteriorates because our supply of growth hormone and insulin decreases.  In studies of rats, it was shown that injecting IGF 1 – LR3 prevented the deterioration of muscle fibers due to age.  In those that were injected, they showed the same speed and power at 27 months old as they did at 6 months old.  Age related muscle atrophy did not seem to set in.  It can be assumed that larger mammals and perhaps humans would have similar results.

    In following the same natural process of growth hormone which is secreted by the pituitary gland, IGF 1 - LR3 helps assist in muscle retention, as shown in the study stated above.  What it really does is called hyperplasia which is the splitting and forming of new muscle cells.  This is what causes the new muscle growth and repair.  The benefits of new muscle growth and repair are many, including fat loss, faster muscle recovery, increased physical performance and decreased effects of aging.

    How IGF 1 – LR3 Used

    IGF 1 – LR3 is most often a dry powder packaged in small vials.  It is reconstituted with acetic acid using a syringe.  The syringe should first be inserted into the vial with the needle in the air pocket just above the powder and air injected into the vial to break the vacuum seal.  Then 1 to 2 ml of the acetic acid should be drawn up into the syringe and injected into the vial, allowing the acid to slowly drip or seep into the bottle, not forcefully injected.  It should then be stored in cold storage like a refrigerator and left to sit undisturbed while it dissolves.  When it is dissolved then it is diluted with sterilized water.

    Once diluted it is drawn up into a syringe and injected subcutaneously at a does of 10 to 50mcg per day.  The dosing amount is dependent on the study subject and the desired results.  The typical dose that has been used in studies is 20mcg per day which has been shown to be effective.  Overuse or using too much has been determined to have a negative effect as the muscle receptors can't handle it and thus there are no benefits and may cause sluggishness.

    Side Effects of IGF 1 - LR3

    In studies the IFG 1 – LR3 protein had been shown to have a few minor negative side effects, most frequently, fatigue.  This is not always a negative thing as rest and sleep can help with the production of growth hormone.  In a few cases some more serious side effects were seen including intestinal, heart, and spleen growth.  But when used properly there are almost no side effects noted.

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