Wednesday, August 23, 2017
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  • Amyloid Beta Peptide Explained

    The amyloid beta peptide is critically associated with Alzheimer’s disease and indicated by 39 to 43 amino acids long from the membrane protein, which makes up the predominant part of the amyloid plaques that are located in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.  It is believed widely by scientists that the production and deposit of the amyloid beta peptide is responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. The peptides are formed once the amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been sequentially cleaved, which is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose function is undetermined.

    The alternative name for amyloid beta peptide is AB42. Biologically it can be described as 42-Residue amyloid ß-protein fragment. The most common form of amyloid ß is generally discovered in the brains of individuals with Down’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease and is neurotoxic. It has a purity of >95% and a molecular weight of 4514.08. The molecular formula of amyloid ß peptide is C203H311N55O60S with a CAS number of 107761-42-2. Amyloid beta peptide’s PubChem identifier is 57339251 with a sequence of DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA. Its solubility is batch dependent and can be stored for up to 12 months at -20°C, under desiccating conditions.
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  • What Are Lipopeptides?

     Lipopeptides are molecules made up of a lipid that connects to a peptide. These molecules are expressed with bacteria and can self-assemble into varying structures. Through scientific research, lipopeptides have shown the ability to increase the natural productivity level of cells. Because of their ability to interact with cell membranes in this way and revitalize their natural function, as well as renew them to their highest growth potential, lipopeptides are considered one of nature’s most effective anti-agers. Lipopeptides are not water-soluble, making them highly adaptable to the natural makeup of the skin.

    Some lipopeptides are used as antibiotics while other types are Toll-like receptor agonists. Specified lipopeptides possess heavy hemolytic and antifungal actions. Research revealed that their functions are often connected to how they interact with plasma membrane.
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  • Tesamorelin: What and Why?

    Tesamorelin is an injectable hormone that takes the synthetic structure of growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and has the trade name, Egrifta. It is used by those who are taking particular HIV medications to lessen fat in the stomach area, cause by those medications. This is the condition called, lipodystrophy. Tesamorelin is a synthetic peptide made up of all 44 amino acids of GHRH as well an acid group, trans-3 hexenoic. The injection of tesamorelin is much like the hormone that the brain’s hypothalamus gland releases and is only available with a prescription from a doctor.

    How to Use Tesamorelin

    Users of tesamorelin for lipodystrophy should only receive it from a trained nurse or other medical professional. The injections may be administered by this health professional or the user will be trained thoroughly on how to self-administer at home. The drug is injected beneath the skin, normally in the stomach or abdomen. It should never be shot into scar tissue, a bruise or the navel.

    Tesamorelin comes in a powder form and must be mixed with a liquid before use. Doses should only be prepared in a syringe when the user is ready to administer the injection. Once the tesamorelin is mixed with water, it has to be used immediately and cannot be stored for later use. Injections should be given in different places in the stomach each time and never injected twice in a row in the same spot.
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  • Toremifene Citrate Explained

    Toremifene citrate is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which is taken orally. It aids in opposing the movement of estrogen throughout the body. The United States has licensed the drug and it is known by the brand name Fareston. It has been FDA approved to be used in metastatic breast cancer. Its chemical formula is C26H28ClNO and it has a molar mass of 405.959 g/mol. The half life of Toremifene citrate is five days.

    Toremifene expresses mixed agonistic along with antagonistic properties where related to estrogen throughout varying tissues and cells in the human body. It belongs to the triphenylethylene family of compounds that includes the drugs tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate, known respectively on the market as Nolvadex and Clomid, which are also closely related to one another. Toremifene citrate is especially close to Nolvadex in how it works to block estrogen.
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  • Custom Protein Expression

    Researchers depend on quality protein samples to deliver the most accurate results from their experiments. Custom protein expression is aimed at isolating the arduous and tedious creation of functional proteins and to make the process easier of producing recombinant proteins when looking for solutions for high throughput screening, structural biological studies and functional validation. These services alleviate stress that researchers feel when challenged with the job of producing diverse proteins in large amounts because there are always issues regarding protein functionality and solubility. Specifically, the challenges they face include culture conditions, varying promoter strengths, constructs and diverse expression hosts, which all factor into the importance of protein solubility. Custom protein expression is critical to the validity and reputation of quality research.

    When it comes to proteins, because of their size and intricacy, it is not acceptable to use chemical synthesis for manufacturing functional proteins for research. Living cells and their cellular mechanics are generally utilized as factories to assemble proteins based on provided genetic templates. In order for researchers to study how proteins manage biology, a way to manufacture functional proteins of interest is necessary.
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  • What is PT-141 Bremelanotide?

    PT-141 bremelanotide is a peptide drug candidate that Palin Technologies has been developing as a female sexual dysfunction treatment. It has also been previously studied to help men who suffer from impotence or erectile dysfunction. Its development came from tanning peptide Melanotan II. This is a synthetically created variation of a peptide hormone that the body naturally produces, the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), which stimulates melanogenesis. MSH is known for its powerful influence over appetite, lipid metabolism, salt regulation, pain nerve regeneration and sexual libido. PT-141 bremelanotide acts principally as an agonist of the melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors and is considered a synthetic hepapeptide.

    Bremelanotide is a melanotan II active metabolite that does not have the C-terminal amide group. Its amino acid sequence is Ac-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-OH with a biological half-life of 120 minutes. Bremelanotide additionally goes structurally by cyclo-[Nle4,Asp5,D-Phe7,Lys10]α-MSH-(4-10). It has a molar mass of 1025.2 g/mol and the molecular formula of C50H68N14O10.
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  • YK11 SARM Explained

     In order to fully know what YK11 SARM is and how it works, we must first understand what a SARM is. SARM stands for “selective androgen receptor modulators”, which are a unique type of androgen receptor ligands. Androgens are a type of hormone that perform as ligands and link to cellular androgen receptors, which are involved in an intricate signal transduction passageway that finally results in better expression of targeted genes. Drugs that are able to block or trigger the same nuclear hormone receptor in different environments is a selective receptor modulator. This allows the drug to copy the positive effects in a particular tissue while simultaneously diminishing the negative impacts of the natural or manufactured steroidal hormones in other tissues.

    YK11 is one of the newest SARMs currently offered. Japanese studies have been quite encouraging about its usage as it is being shown to be the strongest SARM to date and it can be used without unpleasant side effects. Studies that began in 2011 at Toho University in Japan have revealed that YK11 SARM has only shown the growth of undesired body hair and no change in the prostate. Increased aggression is possible, but only if the recommended dosage is exceeded.

    YK11 SARM is like an anabolic steroid in that it can lead to lean muscle growth and is still being researched as to whether or not is can be useful in treating diseases that cause muscle waste, such as AIDS, cancer and muscular dystrophy. In many ways, YK11 SARM is similar to the androgen testosterone, which is a naturally occurring steroid in the body.  For medical purposes, testosterone is used to treat male hypogonadism and breast cancer. Low testosterone levels are also responsible for lessening bone and muscle strength over time as well as a decrease in erections and sperm count in men. YK11 seems to increase muscle mass similarly to the way testosterone does and makes muscle cells produce more of the protein follistatin, which is a myostatin inhibitor. Since myostatin is a protein that inhibits the growth and creation of muscle tissues, YK11 SARM can help the body to produce bigger and leaner muscle tissue.
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  • Where to Buy Ipamorelin

    Ipamorelin is a peptide that is composed of five amino acids and provides binding abilities to cell receptors, which creates a cellular response. For this reason, Ipamorelin is known as an agonist. In laboratory studies, it plays a role in energy homeostasis and controlling the body weight of animals.  Therefore, it is also referred to as a secretogoue. It is most commonly associated with the functions of the liver and brain, specifically the brain’s pituitary gland. When purchasing Ipamorelin for research purposes, it may be found by the names of Ipamorelin Acetate or IPAM. It is important to buy your Ipamorelin from a reputable company, which can seem difficult when searching through all of the choices there are online. If you get poor quality Ipamorelin, your research experiments, tests and results can suffer and prove unreliable. Here are a few tips on where to buy Ipamorelin so that you know you’re getting a quality product.

    First, always make sure you’re buying from a company that has purity results readily available. Any good company will test their product and guarantee the grade of Ipamorelin you’ll be receiving. Every new batch should be tested to ensure that buyers are receiving the grade of Ipamorelin desired. Any good company will give you test results upon request or even post them directly on their website. Before making a purchase, the buyer should be able to see a certificate of the company’s own lab testing purity results.

    Another way to know that you’re buying your Ipamorelin from a reputable company is to check their reviews. A reputable seller will not be afraid to post customer reviews and testimonials right on their web site. Reading these first hand experiences with the potential Ipamorelin supplier can be a major factor in making a decision about where to buy it.
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  • RAD140 SARM Explained

    Before discussing the particulars of RAD140 SARM, it is important to know what a SARM itself is. SARM stands for selective androgen receptor (AR) modulator, which is a unique type of androgen receptor ligands. An AR is a protein that plays a vital role with the body’s hormones for development, such as testosterone. SARMs mark the AR protein to impact muscle growth that may be restricted by the body. SARM treatments have been important in healing wounds, treating skin-related disorders, improving body mass and prompting lean muscle growth.


    SARMs were originally researched in the 1940s by way of testosterone molecule modification. They were widely created to help progress bone health, lower obesity and help fight diseases. RAD140 SARM is currently being developed by Radius Health, Inc. for the treatment of specific conditions like breast cancer and muscle wasting.


    RAD140 is one of the most recently developed SARMs and its goal is to give a jolt of testosterone without negative side effects. It has been considered an alternative to testosterone replacement therapy, mainly because it has been discovered that RAD140 interacts with hormonal receptors in bodily tissue very similarly to how big doses of testosterone do.
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  • Why is it Important to Buy Research Peptides from a Reputable Company?

    Peptides are increasing in popularity as more people are using them to perform research experiments in their labs at home or work. Research peptides are available from a number of suppliers online, but it is important that researchers are clear that they are buying them from a reputable company. If you purchase sub standard peptides, your research results will be inaccurate and of poor purity and quality. Here are items to consider before buying research peptides to be sure you’re purchasing them from a reputable company.


    Read Customer Reviews

    A quick and easy way to investigate the reputation of the company you’re buying peptides from is to read reviews from past customers online. It is a smart idea to go beyond the website of the company to check their reviews and ratings since they can control their content and weed out poor reviews. Look at their social media sites like Facebook, because Facebook settings won’t allow the company to take down bad reviews. Customers can also do a deeper search online for forums or blog posts about the peptides and company they’re buying from.


    Purchase Peptides from the USA

    The United States has some of the highest purity and safety standards when it comes to research materials in the entire world. In order to perform experiments that are accurate and safe, your research must begin with a level of quality and purity that is guaranteed. Buying from other countries could mean ending up with a diverse grade of peptides being sent in multiple shipments, tainting the research results.
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